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The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is located in one of the driest places on the planet and has scarce fresh water resources. The source of fresh water resources in Saudi Arabia is either underground or surface water, and their proportions and quantities are affected by rainfall rates.

Groundwater is divided into two categories:


Renewable groundwater and Non-renewable groundwater.


Renewable groundwater : It is water that is continuously replenished by precipitation and torrents.


Non-renewable groundwater: water that has accumulated in the layers of geological formations in the Arabian Peninsula over time.


The quantities that can be removed are estimated at 330 km3, and the annual compensation rate does not exceed 1.2 km3.


It is expected to meet the Kingdom's demand for water for a period of less than 50 years, at the current consumption rate. Note that it constitutes 85% of the Kingdom's total need for water.





Treated water is divided into two categories:

Desalinated water and Reused treated water


Desalinated water: It is water that has been treated by a series of industrial processes to remove all or part of the excess salts and minerals from it. Sea water can be desalinated to make it possible to use it in practical life such as agriculture, drinking and industry.


Reused Treated Water: It is the water that has been treated after it was polluted and was unfit for use by humans, animals , plants and creatures that live in the seas and oceans . The process of converting wastewater or sewage into water that can be reused for other useful purposes, such as irrigation of gardens and agricultural fields, or replenishing surface and ground water resources, furthermore it can also be used to meet specific needs of the population in their homes, businesses and industry, and can even be treated to make it drinkable.


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